Academic Training

- Biochemist, Licenciado in Biochemistry, Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile, 1997.
- Ph.D., Cell and Molecular Biology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile, 2004.
- Posdoctorate, Centro de Investigaciones Médicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile, 2005.


Scientific Interests

Diabetes is a metabolic disease which is rapidly increasing world-wide. A chronic condition, it produces alterations in tissues and organs. For example, changes in vascular endothelium, in turn, result in the development of associated pathologies such as diabetic nephropathy and heart disease. This research group is mainly interested in these two conditions, because these patients suffer a considerably decreased quality of life, at a high economic cost to our health system.
The nucleoside adenosine is a vasoactive molecule implied in the functional regulation of different tissues and organs, including endothelial cell function. Autocrine and/or paracrine effects of adenosine are mediated by plasma membrane proteins belonging to the purinergic P1 receptor family (adenosine receptors), to which A1, A2a, A2b and A3 receptors also belong. Bioavailability of adenosine for P1 receptor activation is dependent on extracellular synthesis of the nucleoside, which is largely mediated by the enzyme 5’ ecto-nucleotidase, as well as by the ability of the cell to take up and metabolize this nucleoside. This process is mediated by equilibrative and concentrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs and CNTs). In both diabetic animal models and cells and tissues from diabetic patients, it has been shown that adenosine signalling may become altered, which is probably due to changes in bioavailability of the nucleoside, or activation of different P1 receptor subtypes.
We aim to identify the molecular mechanisms that modify the physiological effects of adenosine in coronary and renal glomerulus microvascular endothelium in diabetes. We hope our studies will lead to new therapeutic tools for the pharmacological treatment of diabetes and its chronic complications.

Relevant Publications

- San Martín R, Valladares D, Roa H, Troncoso E, Sobrevia L. (2009) Do adenosine receptors offer new therapeutic options for diabetic nephropathy?. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 7:450-459.

- Roa H, Gajardo C, Troncoso E, Fuentealba V, Escudero C, Yáñez A, Sobrevia L, Pastor-Anglada M, Quezada C, San Martin R. (2009) Adenosine mediates transforming growth factor-beta 1 release in kidney glomeruli of diabetic rats. FEBS Lett. 583:3192-198.

- Valladares D, Quezada C, Montecinos P, Concha I, Yánez A, Sobrevia L, San Martín R. (2008) Adenosine A2B receptor subtype mediates an increase in the VEGF production in rat kidney glomeruli. Biochem Biophysic Res Com 366:180-185.

- San Martín R., Sobrevia L. (2006) Gestational diabetes and the Adenosine/L-arginine/Nitric Oxide (ALANO) pathway in human umbilical vein endothelium. Placenta 27:1-10.

- Farías M, San Martín R, Puebla C, Pearson J, Casado J, Pastor-Anglada M, Casanello P & Sobrevia L. (2006) Nitric oxide reduces the promoter activity of SLC29A1 gene for equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) in human fetal endothelium from gestational diabetes. J Cell Physiol 208:451-460.

- Casanello P, Torres A, González M, Gallardo V, San Martín R, Sobrevia L. (2005) Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 expression is down-regulated by Hypoxia in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells. Circ Res 97:16-24.

- San Martín R, Hurtado W, Quezada C, Molina A, Alvarez M, Vera MI, Reyes A and Krauskopf M. (2007) Gene structure and seasonal expression of carp fish prolactin short receptor isoforms. J Cell Biochem 100:970-980.

- San Martín, R., Cáceres, P., Azócar, R., Molina A., Alvarez, M., Vera, M.I. and Krauskopf, M. (2004) Seasonal environmental change modulates the prolactin receptor expression in a eurythermal fish. J Cell Biochem 92(1):42-52.


Photo Gallery

Foto 1 Cultivo primario de cÚlulas endoteliales de arterias coronarias de rata. Cultivo primario de podocitos desde glomerulos renales Foto 2

Phone: 221524 / Fax: 221107
Campus Isla Teja / Valdivia

- Diabetes
- Vascular Physiology
- Adenosine Receptors

Research Assistant:
- Evelin Troncoso
- Sebastián Alarcón

Postgraduate Students:
- Horacio Roa

Undergraduate Students:
- Vanessa Fuentealba
- Carlos Tejeda
- Cristina Gajardo

Research Collaborators
- Dr. Luis Sobrevia
Centro de Investigaciones Médicas
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
- Dr. Alejandro Yáñez
Instituto de Bioquímica
Universidad Austral de Chile

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